La especie que hoy tratamos dentro del jardín japonés es el pino negro japonés o pino de Thumberg (Pinus thunbergii) y que en Japón es conocido como Kuromatsu (黒松). Se trata de una especie arbórea que además en Japón y ahora ya fuera del archipiélago cada vez se cultiva más como bonsái, ya que se trata de un taxón muy resistente y fácil de modelar. El pino negro es una especie muy representativa del jardín japonés que resulta fácil diferenciar por el trabajo de modelado y pinzado de los jardineros japoneses.
Japanese Garden Plants: Japanese Black Pine
The species is now tried in the Japanese garden is the Japanese black pine or Thumberg pine (Pinus thunbergii) which in Japan is known as Kuromatsu (黒 松). It is a species that also in Japan and outside the archipelago now increasingly grown more as bonsai because it is a taxon very durable and easy to model. The black pine species is very representative of the Japanese garden easily differentiated by the modeling work and pruning of Japanese gardeners.
Pinus thunbergii called Japanese Black Pine, and in Japanese: Kuromatsu (黒松), is a species of woody plant native of coastal areas of South Korea and Japan (Kyushu, Shikoku and Honshū, but not Hokkaidō. Pinus thunbergii is big tree reaching heights of 25 m, rarely 35-40 m. Long needles, depending on the variety, thick and heavy, dark green color and a length of 7-12 cm, with a white shell on the base. The needles grouped in pairs born. Yolks collation candles are whitish, silky scales presenting. Flowers are very small, with the female 4-7 cm, with small points at the end of the scales, red (two years of maturation) and male 1-2 cm, 12-20 grouped, yellow , located on branches of new growth in early summer. Seeds contained in cones with few scales large, about 6 cm long cone shaped ovate, beginning in green color and grey when mature.
Identify numerous cultivars that may vary according to the length of the needles and the color of these. Its widespread use in bonsai has helped significantly to the development of varieties of this species. Among the most important we highlight the following: Pinus thunbergii ‘Kotobuki’, P.t. “Arakawa-sho”, P.t. “Kujaku”, P.t. “Miyajuna”, P.t. “Yoshimura”, P.t. “Nishiki-ne”, P.t. “Shio-guro” and P.t. “Iwai”. It also highlights the variety “corticosa” by the appearance of its bark, thick and corky, like in P.t. var. corticosa “Fuji” and P.t. var. corticosa “Iihara”.
It is a very hardy species that has a gray bark in young and black or silver in the elderly, very cracked, especially in adult. It prefers a location in the garden very lonely, adapting well to various soil types, provided they are well drained. Tolerates excess moisture evil continuously, which usually causes fungal problems at roots.